Rural stretching along the southeastern portion of Monroe County; Mendon boasts the county's highest elevations of over a thousand feet above sea level. Mendon is known for its history, scenic views and farmlands that are seemingly quilted into the rolling landscape. Like many rural communities, agriculture remains Mendon's economic strength. Another strong attribute of our area is our schools, student education leading the way among the best in the country.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,152 people, 3,457 households, and 2,590 families residing in the town. The population density was 236.3 people per square mile (91.24/km²). There were 3,138 housing units at an average density of 78.8 per square mile (30.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 96.5% White, 0.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population.
There were 3,457 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.9% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.1% were non-families. 21.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.10.
In the town, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 19.4% from 25 to 44, 34.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.3 males.
The 2017 American Community Survey estimated the median income for a household in the town to be $97,902, and the median income for a family to be $114,063. The per capita income estimate for the town was $53,046. An estimated 6.0% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
The earliest known inhabitants of the land where the Town of Mendon is located were the Seneca of the Iroquois Confederacy. Totiakton, the native settlement in present-day Mendon, was home to about 4,000 people.  In 1687, the town was destroyed by Marquis de Denonville, the Governor of New France, during his expedition against the Seneca.  Shortly after the destruction, the surviving natives moved elsewhere. The rest of the Seneca suffered a similar fated when, in 1779, Major General John Sullivan was ordered by George Washington to wage war against Loyalists and four nations of the Iroquois Confederacy who had sided with the British in the Revolutionary War. The Sullivan Expedition pushed the tribes to the British-controlled Niagara Frontier, the western edge of Western New York.
Following the Revolutionary War, in 1788, Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham bought of 6,000,000 acres (24,000 km2) of land in what is now western New York State from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Included in the Phelps and Gorham Purchase was the land that would later become the Town of Mendon (known as township number 11, range 5 in the purchase's 1788 survey).
For a short period, the area that is now Mendon was ostensibly part of New York's Montgomery County until January 27, 1789 when Ontario County was formed. From 1789 to 1812, the area was within the Town of Bloomfield.  On May 26, 1812, the Town of Mendon separated from the Bloomfield holding its first town meeting and elections on April 6, 1813. In 1821, Mendon was annexed by Monroe County when the county was created.
According to a local historian, Mendon most likely got its name from Caleb Taft, an early settler, who came from Mendon, Massachusetts.
On June 7, 1825, Marquis de Lafayette attended a dinner reception in his honor at the Mendon Hotel hosted by Revolutionary War veterans during his tour of all 24 states of the union.
The first train travelled through Mendon on January 1, 1853, when a railroad was built between Canandaigua and Batavia. The "Peanut Line," as it would later be referred to after it was acquired by the New York Central Railroad was opened, and had a station in the village of Honeoye Falls. In 1891, the Lehigh Valley Railroad (LVRR) completed its mainline from Manchester to Buffalo, which travelled right through the heart of Mendon. At the height of the LVRR, there were three stations located in the town; one in the hamlet of Mendon, the second at Rochester Junction (a major hub where track split off the mainline to downtown Rochester), and the third in the village of Honeoye Falls.
In 1954, the New York State Thruway was built on the northern border of Mendon, which became Interstate 90 (I-90) when the Interstate Highway System was created in 1957.
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places:
- The Adsit Cobblestone Farmhouse.
- Cole Cobblestone Farmhouse.
- Gates-Livermore Cobblestone Farmhouse.
- Mendon Cobblestone Academy.
- Mendon Presbyterian Church.
- Miller–Horton–Barben Farm.
- Sheldon Cobblestone House.
- Stewart Cobblestone Farmhouse.
- Whitcomb Cobblestone Farmhouse.